Ludwig van Beethoven

Ludwig van Beethoven (baptized 17 December 1770 – 26 March 1827) was a German composer and pianist.  A crucial figure in the transition between the Classical and Romantic eras in Western art music, he remains one of the most famous and influential of all composers.  His best known compositions include 9 symphonies, 5 concertos for piano, 32 piano sonatas, and 16 string quartets.  He also composed other chamber music, choral works (including the celebrated Missa Solemnis), and songs.



Pathetique Sonata – 2nd movement

Adagio_sonate_pathétiqueThe Adagio movement, a grand expansive movement utilized by future composers, often in chamber music, opens with a famous cantabile melody.  This theme is played three times, always in A-flat major, separated by two modulating episodes, making it a five-part rondo.  The first episode is set in F minor (relative minor of A-flat major), further modulating to E-flat major before returning to the main theme.  The second episode begins in A-flat minor and modulates to E major.  With the final return of the main theme, the accompaniment becomes richer and takes on the triplet rhythm of the second episode.


Pathetique Sonata – 2nd mov



Pathetique Sonata – 2nd mov
「悲愴」 2楽章 
Eric Heidsieck


Turkish March


The Turkish March (Marcia alla turca) is a well-known classical march theme by Ludwig van Beethoven.  It was written in the Turkish style popular in music of the time.

The theme was first used in Beethoven’s “6 Variations on an Original Theme”, Op. 76, of 1809.  In 1811 Beethoven wrote an overture and incidental music to a play by August von Kotzebue called The Ruins of Athens (Op. 113), which premiered in Pest in 1812.  The Turkish March appears as item No. 4 of the incidental music.  Many music lovers associate the theme with The Ruins of Athens, although that was not its original appearance.


Turkish March
(arr. for 8 pianos; Larrocha, Bolet, etc.)


The Famous Turkish March



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